FM Antenna

FM BROADCAST ANTENNA Transmitter & STL
Aluminium - Stainless Steel

For FM Radios Antennas and Radiation antena Systems. Rugged in construction, designed to be durable and resistant to extreme weather conditions and last for many years.

RADIO STATION and BROADCASTING EQUIPMENT

COMPLETE GUIDE ABOUT SELECTION OF FM BROADCASTING EQUIPMENT AND FM RADIO STATION EQUIPMENT

There are many doubts a broadcaster has in mind when he needs approach to the Broadcast Market.
Typically a broadcaster is not an telecommunication’s engineer and specific skills are required to approach the purchase of professional broadcast equipment.

In addition, the FM Radio is niche and it is difficult to find engineers specialized in this vertical sector.

For this reason, it’s of fundamental importance to rely on a competent supplier who has years of experience behind him.
Below the links there is a complete guide that will help you choose the right equipment for your radio, read it please, it contains valuable information.

Antenna for FM transmitter

The type of antenna a broadcaster needs depends on many factors: the area they need to cover: rural, metropolitan, city, mixed, flat or mountainous terrain, etc.

There are many types of antennas: directional, omnidirectional, yagi, logarithmic, circular polarization, broadband, tuned, etc.

Depending on the needs of the broadcaster, it is possible to identify antenna systems that meet their coverage needs.

Below is a description of the main features of antenna systems and a guide to choosing the appropriate model.

 

Why are TEKO antennas superior in performance and quality to those of our competitors?

TEKO antennas are manufactured with durability in mind. Every detail of quality is optimized to ensure that they will work well forever, with no change in performance over the years.

To achieve this we have worked on several fronts:

1) The design of the antenna

2) The quality of the materials used

3) The quality and type of treatments given to materials

4) Etc.

But this would not be sufficient if, due to mistreatment during transport, the antenna would suffer failures or deformations.

For this reason, in TEKO broadcast, we take maniacal care of the packaging.

They are designed with the same care that we design the antennas, to ensure maximum protection during transport and to reduce the cost of transport. 

 

For this reason our antennas are real jewels, they shine like platinum, maintain this brilliance over the years and retain their value over time.

Starting from the simplest detail, for example, the nut used to fix the antenna to the pole

A standard, steel nut and screw, exposed to the elements, will lock over time. After a year it is impossible to unscrew them.

 

Our nut is designed specifically for its function, it is not a standard nut, it is manufactured by us.

Made of brass material and then galvanized, larger than the standard one.

This is to avoid corrosion and this blocking phenomenon.

Even after twenty years exposed to the inclemencies of the harshest climate, the fasteners remain perfectly functional. These can be disassembled without damaging the antenna.

 

How a radio antenna works

A transducer is a device that converts one physical quantity into another.

The antenna is a transducer, the conversion takes place between "electric current" and "electromagnetic field".

There are two types of antenna, Transmitter Antenna and Receiver Antenna. 

The transmitting antenna converts the electric current generated by the transmitter into an electromagnetic field that is radiated.

The receiving antenna converts the received magnetic field into an electric current. The receiver uses this electric current to extract the information it contains.

 

What is the purpose of an FM antenna

It is used to transmit music, thoughts, pictures, etc. by electromagnetic energy and radio waves.

An FM antenna does just that.

We see antennas every day, they are in our cell phones, in our cars, in our homes.

Antennas come in many different shapes. The shape depends on what you intend to receive or transmit.

So the function of an antenna is to send radio waves all over the earth, and even into space, or to receive radio waves from long distances.

 

What does a Radio Antenna compare to?

The operation of the antenna is, less intuitive than other transducers.

To compare it to something more familiar we can use the speaker.

We all listen to the radio, TV or Hi-Fi system, we are familiar with how the speaker converts electrical current into acoustic energy or sound waves.

We are used to listening to music at different volumes, the speaker inside headphones, the speakers used in rock concerts. The first use fractions of watts to produce the sound we hear, those in a concert use many thousands of watts!

The antenna does the same thing as the speakers, only it converts not to acoustic energy, but to electromagnetic energy.

There are antennas connected to small transmitters that radiate a few tens of watts and antenna systems connected to transmitters of thousands of watts.

 

What kind of antennas are there?

There are two types of antennas, a transmitter type and another, more commonly used, receiver type.

Both work differently, but in related, complementary ways.

 

How does the whole transmitter-antenna-receiver system work?

The transmitter receives electrical audio signals as input, transforms them into radio frequency.

The antenna, connected to the transmitter, transforms the radio frequency into radio waves also called electromagnetic waves.

Radio waves travel at the speed of light and can travel great distances around the earth and even into space.

These radio waves are then captured by the receiving antennas.

The radio waves captured by the antenna from the receiver antenna, generates an electrical current that a radio or other similar device converts into electrical current and then into sound or data.

 

A radio station uses an FM antenna to transform the radio frequency produced by the transmitter into electromagnetic waves and transmit its signal over long distances

 

What is the difference between the transmitting antenna and the receiving antenna?

The transmitting antenna has a very different characteristic from the receiving one

The transmitting antenna must handle high power, must direct the waves in the area of interest, must be mounted at a height that allows it to reach as far as possible.

The receiving antenna, that of the car for example, must receive signals of very low power from any direction. 

 

Important properties of transmitting antennas

Three characteristics of antennas are particularly important: directionality, gain, bandwidth and polarization.

 

Directionality

Directionality is the parameter that measures in which direction there is the greatest radiation of the antenna or, in other words, in which direction there is the greatest concentration of radiation.

Antennas are divided into two types: omnidirectional and directional.

Omnidirectional antennas: they radiate equally in all directions, 360 degrees. This is the antenna called DIPOLO. The most widely used.

Directional antennas can be of different types: multiple element antennas, logarithmic antennas, yagi antennas and panels.

Each of these types have different values of directionality and concentration of the electromagnetic beam in one direction.

 

Gain

In electromagnetics, the gain of an antenna is a number that combines antenna directivity and electrical efficiency.

In a transmitting antenna, gain describes how much the antenna converts incoming power into radio waves radiated in a specific direction.

A relative parameter is used to define antenna gain, defined as: the ratio of the power radiated by the antenna in a specific direction to the power radiated by a hypothetical lossless isotropic antenna that is equally radiated in all directions.

This ratio is expressed in decibel-isotropes (dBi). dBi is the parameter normally used to specify the gain of an antenna.

It should be specified that given a specific type of antenna, the gain is a parameter that depends on the geometry of the antenna and cannot be changed by the manufacturer to improve or worsen it.

Example: to increase the gain of a dipole antenna, the only possible operation is to increase the number of antennas.

A two antenna system has twice the gain of a single antenna. A four antenna system has twice the gain of a two antenna system, etc.

 

Bandwidth

The geometric shape or size of the FM antenna is an inverse ratio to the wavelength of the signal to be transmitted.

Outside the working band the antenna is mismatched.

The matching parameter defines how much the antenna shows itself to the transmitter as a pure 50 Ohm load. Pure in the sense that it must show itself as a purely ohmic, non-capacitive and non-inductive resistor. 

In a mismatched antenna part of the power is reflected, sent back to the transmitter in the form of VSWR.

This produces two effects:

1) Power is not radiated so coverage decreases

2) The transmitter is overloaded because it has to handle the power it is transmitting plus the power that is being sent back.

Moreover this overload can damage the transmitter.

The above considerations imply that the bandwidth is a finite number, and that it is difficult to design antennas that cover a very wide band, increasing or decreasing the frequency of the signal, you go out of the band for which the antenna was designed.

If, for example, you double the FM frequency, the size of the antenna becomes half.

Conversely, if the frequency is halved with respect to the FM frequency, the antenna increases its size to twice that.

There are two types of antennas: wideband and tuned.

The wideband FM antennas, maintain its matching characteristic in all 20MHz of the FM band.

Tuned antennas, are adapted only in a small band around the frequency to which it was tuned.

The FM bandwidth is 20MHz, so because of the above, designing an antenna that has a consistent matching characteristic throughout the band requires special attention and skill in design.

The matching of a wideband antenna is something that the designer and manufacturer can work on to improve, that is, to ensure that the impedance presented by the antenna to the transmitter at all points of the band is the best possible and constant throughout the band.

 

Polarization

Polarization is the direction in which the electromagnetic fields produced by the antenna travel when energy is radiated.

These directional fields determine the plane in which the energy travels and is received by a receiving antenna.

This plane is conventionally called the "E-plane".

Polarization can be Linear (vertical, horizontal or oblique) or Circular.

This simple concept is important for antenna-to-antenna communication.

A horizontally polarized antenna will not communicate with a vertically polarized antenna and vice versa.

 

Linear Polarization

Linear polarization refers to an antenna system that operates with polarization in a single plane of radiation: vertical, horizontal, or oblique.

For vertical polarization, the electric field will oscillate up and down in a vertical plane.

For horizontal polarization, the electric field will oscillate left and right on a horizontal plane.

Thus, a vertical antenna receives and emits vertically polarized waves, and a horizontal antenna receives or emits horizontally polarized waves.

 

Circular Polarization.

In circular polarization, the E-plane, or the direction in which the energy is radiated, changes continuously with a circular motion.

This means that vector of the E-plane continuously rotates and gradually passes through all intermediate variants from vertical to horizontal.

In this type of polarization, the power of the transmitter is radiated on two vectors, the vertical and the horizontal one. The power on the single vector then becomes half.

 

Choosing the polarization type

The choice of polarization type depends on the regulations in force in the country of use of the antenna.

The most used globally is the vertical polarization.

In some Eastern European and Northern European countries horizontal polarization is or used to be used.

In the United States and Latin America circular polarization is used.

The choice of polarization type is political or technical.

The horizontal polarization was chosen to avoid the reception of radios from neighboring countries.

Circular polarization is used in the belief that this improves reception, mainly in cars or in large cities.

In this case we must consider two factors: 1) the electromagnetic beam, rotating, makes the antenna receive the signal in any position it is.  2) the power received is half compared to the power it could receive if radiated in one direction only.

Antennas in cars are mounted at 45 degrees, in this way they receive any kind of polarization. Also in this case, they receive a signal halved compared to the one received if the antenna was positioned in the same axis of the transmitting antenna.

 

 

DIPOLE VERTICAL POLARIZATION

- The series of dipole antennas with vertical polarization is designed for the FM transmission band (87.5 -108 MHz).

- The radiation pattern is omnidirectional.

- Suitable for single channel or wideband operations with multi-channel combiners.

- Easy installation (the antenna is shipped already assembled, simply attach it to the pole with the supplied brackets).

- Available with the following connectors: N (max 600W), DIN 7/16 (max 1400W), EIA 7/8 (max 3500W).

- Gain: 2.15 dBd.

 

CIRCULAR POLARIZATION

- The circular polarization antenna series is designed for

- FM transmission band (87.5 -108 MHz).

- The radiation pattern is omnidirectional and the polarization is circular.

- Suitable for single channel or wideband operations with multi-channel combiners.

- To facilitate transport of this antenna model, the elements are removed from the balun.

- This antenna is particularly suitable for city installations where multiple reflections (multipath) are a problem and the circular polarization drastically reduces the negative effects.

- Available with the following connectors: N (max 600W), DIN 7/16 (max

- 1400 W), EIA 7/8 (max 3500 W).

- Gain: -1,5 dBd.

 

YAGI ANTENNA

- The series of vertically polarized Yagi antennas is designed for the FM transmission band (87.5 -108 MHz).

- The radiation pattern is directional. Multiple antennas can be combined to create the pattern required by the customer.

- Suitable for single-channel or wideband operation with multi-channel

- channel combiners.

- Easy installation (antenna is shipped already assembled, simply attach to pole with supplied brackets).

- Available with the following connectors: N (max 600W), DIN 7/16 (max 1400W), EIA 7/8 (max 3500W).

- Gain: 5 dBd

 

DOUBLE DIPOLE PANEL ANTENNA

- The series of double dipole panel antennas with vertical polarization is designed for the FM transmission band (87.5 -108 MHz).

- The radiation pattern is directional. Multiple antennas can be combined to create the pattern required by the customer.

- Suitable for single-channel or wideband operation with multi-channel

- channel combiners.

- To facilitate transportation of this antenna model, the reflector is divided into two parts.

- Available with the following connectors: DIN 7/16 (max 1400W), EIA 7/8 (max 3500W).

- Gain: 7.5 dBd.

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